Ages 12 & up: Permanent Dentition

Dental Development

  •  The last permanent tooth to erupt is usually the second molar, coming in around age 12-13.
  •  Wisdom teeth usually begin to erupt between ages 17-21.
  •  Most people do not have room for their wisdom teeth to come in and must have them removed by an oral surgeon. It is a good idea to have wisdom teeth removed early, before experiencing any problems or pain. Having them removed early also promotes faster healing with fewer complications than if you wait until later.

Diet & Nutrition

  •  Snacks containing sugars and carbohydrates can be harmful to teeth. Brushing after these snacks can be especially helpful in preventing decay.
  •  Please see our green sheet included in your folder for more details on snacking choices.

Brushing & Flossing

  •  Brushing and flossing techniques will be reviewed at each check-up visit.


  •  Teeth should be brushed every morning after breakfast and every night before bed (night time is the most important). Brushing after snacks is also very helpful in preventing decay.
  •  Teeth should be brushed one at a time, in a circular motion, on every surface of the tooth. The gums and tongue should be brushed as well.


  •  Teeth should be flossed at least once every day (preferably at night). It is beneficial to floss tight contact areas and areas that trap food more often.

To floss effectively:

  1. Wrap the floss around your middle fingers and pinch tightly with pointer fingers and thumbs.
  2. Slide the floss into the contact area and cup it around one of the teeth (the floss should be shaped like a “C”).
  3. Now slide the floss up and down, going into the edge of the gums.
  4. Cup the floss around the other tooth and repeat. Repeat this through the entire mouth.


  •  Fluoride is a natural mineral that helps to prevent cavities and repair early stages of tooth decay.
  •  Fluoride can be obtained topically and systemically, but is most effective when these methods are combined. Drinking fluoridated water, using fluoride toothpaste, and receiving regular fluoride treatments at check-ups can help your child to be cavity-free.
  •  If the water in your area is not fluoridated and your child is not receiving the proper amount of fluoride, Drs. Moses /Robinson can provide you with a prescription for a fluoride supplement.


  •  A sealant is a thin layer of plastic that is bonded to the biting surfaces of back teeth where decay occurs most often. The sealant fills in grooves to keep plaque out and provide a smooth surface that is easy to clean.
  • Drs. Moses /Robinson recommends sealants on all permanent molars. Sealants are also recommended on front teeth with deep pits and grooves that are more susceptible to decay.

Traumatic Injuries

  •  While we hope that your child never experiences a dental injury, we would like to help prepare you in case an emergency situation arises. Please see our red sheet included in your folder for details relating to specific emergency situations.
  •  Injuries severe enough to cause bleeding or fracture teeth should be evaluated by Drs. Moses /Robinson.
  •   We are always available to see emergencies, so please do not hesitate to call. If the office is closed, our answering machine will give you the Drs. cell phone number to contact them.

Sports Guards

  •  If your child is active in sporting activities, he/she has an increased risk of dental injury.
  •  We can make custom mouth guards to help protect your child’s teeth, lips, and face from injury.


  •  Many children are becoming interested in whitening their teeth. Children without all of their permanent teeth in should not bleach. Once all permanent teeth are fully erupted, bleaching is a safe way to whiter teeth.

Custom Trays

  •  The best way to whiten is with custom bleaching trays. The trays are made to fit your child’s mouth exactly which distributes and holds the bleach evenly on every surface of the tooth.
  •  The type of bleach used with our trays produces great results with little sensitivity.


  •  Many people are using Whitestrips for a less expensive way to whiten their teeth. While custom trays are still recommended for optimal results, the strips do produce a whitening effect.
  •  There are professional strength whitening strips that we carry in our office because they are unavailable in stores. This product is 80% stronger than the regular whitening strips.
  •  Whitestrips may cause uncomfortable sensitivity because of the type of bleach they use. This sensitivity can be soothed with an in-office fluoride treatment.

Future Visits


  •  In most cases, children should be seen every 6 months to ensure adequate dental care and to reinforce good dental habits. This time period also allows prompt diagnosis and treatment of any conditions that may pose a problem in the future.
  •  Check-up visits will include a full exam, cleaning, fluoride, x-rays (once a year), and instructions for proper brushing and flossing. Drs. Moses / Robinson will also meet with you after each visit to go over x-rays, plan any needed treatment, and answer your questions.


  •  Drs. Moses / Robinson will always consult with you to at the time of your child’s exam to discuss any future dental treatment your child may need.
  •  Dental work appointments are scheduled specially for your child’s needs and can be set up with the front office personnel.